What organizational psychology is

Organizational psychology is a form of psychology which is directed to work places. It is also know as work psychology, occupational psychology, personnel psychology and industrial psychology. If an organization really wants smooth running of the work in it, they should seek the services of an organizational psychologist. It gives solution of organizational and workplace problems by dealing with those problems caused by human problems that affects their performance in work places. This is done by researching on organizational behavior and worker-management interactions, looking at corporate cultures in details and then human interaction, evaluation of the leadership in place, finding out what could be source of existing conflicts and then solving them, and advising management of the psychological and social importance of policies laid.

When it emerged

It began in the 19th century movement to evaluate peoples capabilities and intentions. During World War I in 1917, this psychology truly came into being. When the war ended in 1919, university was established to offer studies in psychology application to business. In World War II, it became a very well recognized area in psychology. Their work of looking at the workers in an organization and seeing how their functioning affected that organization was recognized and thus came into existence.

Why it emerged

Psychologists saw that there were conflicts between what organization and individuals needed so that they are all comfortable with one another. Organizations wanted to regulate human behavior attempt to reduce to predictable patterns. Humans also, didnt want their actions and behavior changed to what organizations wanted. This thus called for an intervention from a psychologist.

Fields of organizational psychology

Selection and Placement: where there is Development of assessment tools for selection, placement, classification, and promotion of employees, analysis of the job requirement.
Training and Development: here, the psychologist look at the organizations needs that needs to be trained on and then do the training and implement them. they then manage the programs developed. after the training they find out whether it was effective in relation to the productivity of the organization and satisfaction of the employees.
Organizational Development: which is done by Analyzing organizational structure, making sure the workers satisfaction is maximized and then making the change.

Performance Measurement: This is done by developing the criteria to measure the utility and then evaluating its effectiveness in the organization.

Quality of Work life: is looked at by Enhancing the productive outputs of individuals finding out factors affecting with job satisfaction and then redesigning jobs so that they are more meaningful.

Consumer Psychology: is achieved by evaluating their preference, identifying consumer reactions to new products and then creating market segmentation strategies
Engineering Psychology: where a work environment is designed, person-machine, and then developing system technologies.

What organizational psychologists do

Organizational psychologists work in making sure that the organizations well being is improved y making it successful in all that it does and any employee working in it. This is done y ensuring that workers perform well and the environment they are working in is favorable. They research and identify how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices in the organization, training programs offered, and feedback systems. They help people understand their interactions with one another so that they work together to accomplish companies goals important to them. They work with everyone involved with the company making sure that the workplace is conducive and the employees are more productive. This is done by carefully looking at how workers behave and communicate with other workers and their seniors and looking at how healthy they are both in their minds and bodies at large. They are often called when an organization needs help in the productivity of the wokers and the place of work itself by facilitating teambuilding projects and leadership training activities. They make recommendations on how to make the working environment and the people working there thrive by brightening and strengthening them. This is done by recommending on lighting systems, type of chairs and general arrangement of furniture, encouraging the organization to motivate the workers, giving them options on casual Fridays, medical covers and so on.

References

Michael G. Applied Industrial/Organizational Psychology. (1999). 3rd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Lawson, Robert B. and Zheng S. Organizational Psychology: Foundations and Applications. (1998). New York: Oxford University Press.
Muchinsky, P. M. Psychology applied to work (2006). (8th ed.) Thomson Wadsworth.
Schultz, D. P., and Sydney E. S. Psychology and Work Today. (1998). 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Stone, Philip, and Mark C. Organizational Psychology. (1997) Brookfield, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co.

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